Gene therapy is when DNA is introduced into a patient to treat a genetic disease. The new DNA usually contains a functioning gene to correct the effects of a disease-causing mutation. Gene therapy uses sections of DNA? (usually genes?) to treat or prevent disease. The DNA is carefully selected to correct the effect of a mutated gene that... Continue Reading →
The ‘Central Dogma’ is the process by which the instructions in DNA are converted into a functional product. It was first proposed in 1958 by Francis Crick, discoverer of the structure of DNA. The central dogma of molecular biology explains the flow of genetic information, from DNA ?to RNA?, to make a functional product, a protein?. The central dogma suggests... Continue Reading →
Genes are small sections of DNA within the genome that code for proteins. They contain the instructions for our individual characteristics – like eye and hair colour. A gene is a small section of DNA? that contains the instructions for a specific molecule, usually a protein?. The purpose of genes? is to store information. Each gene contains the information required... Continue Reading →
Chromosomes are bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus of almost every cell in our body. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. In plant and animal cells, DNA? is tightly packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes?. This is in contrast to bacteria? where DNA floats freely around the cell. A single length of DNA is wrapped many times... Continue Reading →
DNA fingerprinting is a method used to identify an individual from a sample of DNA by looking at unique patterns in their DNA. Background Almost every cell? in our body contains our DNA?. On average, about 99.9 per cent of the DNA between two humans is the same. The remaining percentage is what makes us unique (unless you... Continue Reading →
Electrophoresis is a technique commonly used in the lab to separate charged molecules, like DNA, according to size. Gel electrophoresis is a technique commonly used in laboratories to separate charged molecules like DNA?, RNA? and proteins?according to their size. Charged molecules move through a gel when an electric current is passed across it. An electric current is applied across... Continue Reading →
You've probably heard of the human genome, the huge collection of genes inside each and every one of your cells. You probably also know that we've sequenced the human genome. But what does that actually mean? How do you sequence someone's genome? Let's back up a bit. What is a genome? Well, a genome is... Continue Reading →
PCR is a technique used in the lab to make millions of copies of a particular section of DNA. It was first developed in the 1980s. What is PCR? The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was originally developed in 1983 by the American biochemist Kary Mullis. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1993... Continue Reading →
Sickle cell anaemia is an inherited blood disorder in which red blood cells develop abnormally. Learn about the genetics, biology, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in simple and concise manner.
GMOs are organisms that have had their characteristics changed through the modification of their DNA. GMO stands for genetically modified organism. Genetically modified (GM) organisms are organisms that have had their genomes? changed in a way that does not happen naturally. By changing an organism’s genome we can change its characteristics. Any organism could be... Continue Reading →
Inheritance is the process by which genetic information is passed on from parent to child. This is why members of the same family tend to have similar characteristics. We actually have two genomes? each We get one copy of our genome from each of our parents Inheritance describes how genetic material is passed on from... Continue Reading →
In biology, evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations and relies on the process of natural selection. The theory of evolution is based on the idea that all species? are related and gradually change over time. Evolution relies on there being genetic variation? in a population which affects the physical characteristics (phenotype) of... Continue Reading →
Mitosis is a process where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells (cell division). During mitosis one cell? divides once to form two identical cells. The major purpose of mitosis is for growth and to replace worn out cells. If not corrected in time, mistakes made during mitosis can result in changes in the DNA? that can potentially lead to genetic disorders?. Mitosis... Continue Reading →
A stem cell is a cell with the unique ability to develop into specialised cell types in the body. In the future, they may be used to replace cells and tissues that have been damaged or lost due to disease. What is a stem cell? Our body is made up of many different types of... Continue Reading →
Cells are the basic building blocks of living things. The human body is composed of trillions of cells, all with their own specialised function. Cells are the basic structures of all living organisms. Cells provide structure for the body, take in nutrients from food and carry out important functions.