The prescribed syllabus by CBSE is expected to:
- Promote understanding of basic principles of Biology;
- Encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society;
- Promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development;
- Enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions;
- Create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and developing respect for other living beings;
- Appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes.
Course Structure (2017-18)
|Unit||Title||No. Of Periods||Marks|
|I||Diversity of Living Organisms||23||7|
|II||Structural Organisation in Plants and Animals||22||12|
|III||Cell: Structure and Function||35||15|
Unit-I Diversity of Living Organisms (23 Periods)
Chapter-1: The Living World
What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; three domains of life; taxonomy and
systematics; concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; binomial nomenclature; tools for study of taxonomy-museums, zoological parks, herbaria, botanical gardens.
Chapter-2: Biological Classification
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera, Protista and Fungi into major groups: Lichens, Viruses and Viroids.
Chapter-3: Plant Kingdom
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups – Algae, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Angiospermae (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms – classification upto class, characteristic features and examples.
Chapter-4: Animal Kingdom
Salient features and classification of animals non-chordates up to phyla level and chordates up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples of each category).
(No live animals or specimen should be displayed.)
Unit-II Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants (22 Periods)
Chapter-5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
Morphology and modifications: Tissues
Chapter-6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed (to be dealt along with the relevant experiment of the Practical Syllabus).
Chapter-7: Structural Organisation in Animals
Animal tissues: Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)
Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function (35 Periods)
Chapter-8: Cell-The Unit of Life
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Plant cell and animal cell; cell envelope; cell membrane, cell wall; cell organelles – structure and function; endomembrane system, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); nucleus, nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: biomolecules, structure and function of proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes, types, properties, enzyme action.
Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
Unit-IV Plant Physiology (40 Periods)
Chapter-11: Transport in Plants
Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport, Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations, Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; transpiration, opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, massflow hypothesis; diffusion of gases.
Chapter-12: Mineral Nutrition
Essential minerals, macro- and micronutrients and their role; deficiency symptoms; mineral toxicity; elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; nitrogen metabolism, nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.
Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants
Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.
Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development
Seed germination; phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; conditions of growth;
differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental processes in a plant cell; growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; seed dormancy; vernalisation; photoperiodism.
Unit-V Human Physiology (40 Periods)
Chapter-16: Digestion and Absorption
Alimentary canal and digestive glands, role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.
Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.
Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation
Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.
Chapter-19: Excretory Products and Their Elimination
Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders -uraemia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney.
Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement
Types of movement – ciliary, flagellar, muscular; skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; skeletal system and its functions; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system – myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, gout.
Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination
Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action; sensory perception; sense organs; elementary structure and functions of eye and ear.
Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration
Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.
Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.
|One Major Experiment Part A (Expt. No. 1, 3, 7, 8)||5|
|One Minor Experiment Part A (Expt. No. 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)||4|
|Slide Preparation Part A (Expt No. 2, 4, 5)||5|
|Spotting Part B||7|
|Practical Record + Viva Voce||4|
|Project Record + Viva Voce||5|
A. List of Experiments
- Study and description of three locally available common flowering plants, one from each of the families Solanaceae, Fabacceae and Liliaceae (Poaceae, Asteraceae or Brassicaceae can be substituted in case of particular geographical location) including dissection and display of floral whorls, anther and ovary to show number of chambers (floral formulae and floral diagrams). Types of root (Tap and adventitious); stem (herbaceous and woody); leaf (arrangement, shape, venation, simple and compound).
- Preparation and study of T.S. of dicot and monocot roots and stems (primary).
- Study of osmosis by potato osmometer.
- Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels (e.g. Rhoeo leaves).
- Study of distribution of stomata in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
- Comparative study of the rates of transpiration in the upper and lower surface of leaves.
- Test for the presence of sugar, starch, proteins and fats. Detection in suitable plant and animal materials.
- Separation of plant pigments through paper chromatography.
- Study of the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.
- Test for presence of urea in urine.
- Test for presence of sugar in urine.
- Test for presence of albumin in urine.
- Test for presence of bile salts in urine.
B. Study/observation of the following (spotting)
- Study of the parts of a compound microscope.
- Study of the specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Bacteria, Oscillatoria, Spirogyra, Rhizopus, mushroom, yeast, liverwort, moss, fern, pine, one monocotyledonous plant, one dicotyledonous plant and one lichen.
- Study of virtual specimens/slides/models and identification with reasons – Amoeba, Hydra, liverfluke, Ascaris, leech, earthworm, prawn, silkworm, honeybee, snail, starfish, shark, rohu, frog, lizard, pigeon and rabbit.
- Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells (palisade cells, guard cells, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, xylem, phloem, squamous epithelium, muscle fibers and mammalian blood smear) through temporary/permanent slides.
- Study of mitosis in onion root tip cells and animals cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.
- Study of different modifications in roots, stems and leaves.
- Study and identification of different types of inflorescence (cymose and racemose).
- Study of imbibition in seeds/raisins.
- Observation and comments on the experimental set up for showing:
a) Anaerobic respiration
c) Effect of apical bud removal
d) Suction due to transpiration
- Study of human skeleton and different types of joints with the help of virtual images/models only.
- Study of external morphology of cockroach through virtual images/models.
- Biology Class-XI, Published by NCERT
- Other related books and manuals brought out by NCERT (consider multimedia also)
- Online Labs (http://www.olabs.edu.in/?pg=topMenu&id=53) for practicals related videos.